Creep Response and Microstructural Changes during Intermittent Heating of Advanced Tempered Martensitic 9-12%Cr Steels
Significant developments have been made in recent years in the description of microstructure evolution and its effects on the creep behaviour in advanced 9-12%Cr steels. However, data available for assessing the predictability of the creep behaviour are somewhat scarce since creep testing has generally been for constant temperature and load conditions. The present investigation was conducted on three advanced 9-12%Cr martensitic/ferritic steels (P91, P92 and E911) in an effort to obtain more complete description and understanding of the role of degradation processes in high temperature creep during intermittent heating. A comparison between the creep characteristics of non-steady and monotonously loaded creep specimens has revealed no significant deterioration of the creep strength and fracture resistance of the steels P91, P92 and E911 under non-steady loading in power-law (dislocation) creep. The final part of this paper deals with detailed experimental microstructural and fractographic investigations of crept specimens to explain the observed creep behaviour. Special attention is paid to the thermodynamic calculations using the software package Thermo-Calc, that have been used to predict precipitation reactions during intermittent heating of 9-12% chromium steels. The results of the thermodynamic calculations are in a good agreement with experimental data.
Marcello Cabibbo and Stefano Spigarelli
V. Sklenička et al., "Creep Response and Microstructural Changes during Intermittent Heating of Advanced Tempered Martensitic 9-12%Cr Steels", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 604-605, pp. 367-377, 2009