Recent Developments in the Processing and Applications of Structural Metals and Alloys

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Authors: D. Vallauri, S. Grassini, Bruno DeBenedetti, R. Alexandre
Abstract: Magnetron sputtering is a powerful process for the production of thin films and coatings employed for the surface modification of tools and engineering components in various industrial sectors. Nanostructured coatings for multifunctional applications were deposited by means of magnetron sputtering by adjusting the experimental parameters in order to tailor the chemistry, the microstructure and the morphology of the coatings. Among the several systems that were investigated, TiC–TiB2 for wear applications were successfully tested. TiC–TiB2 coatings were deposited on a hardmetal WC–Co substrate in an unbalanced DC magnetron sputtering system starting from composite targets fabricated by the Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) consolidation method, involving the material synthesis and densification in one step. The results, showing the achievement of nanostructured films with thickness ranging between 1 and 2 µm, are here presented. The properties evaluated on the developed films (hardness, adhesion, friction coefficient and volumetric wear) are promising for the improvement of wear-resistant applications.
Authors: Volker Engels, Andrew E.H. Wheatley, Angel Berenguer-Murcia, David A. Jefferson, Brian F.G. Johnson
Abstract: Novel catalytic systems based on PdZn alloys have been synthesized by polyol reduction over the entire compositional range [1, 2] and characterized by means of HRTEM, EDS and ICP. The expected bulk compositions were reproducible to within a 2 mol% margin and the purified particle suspensions stable for several months after preparation. The EDS results indicated the presence of considerable amounts of oxygen, especially in those samples containing high fractions of zinc. The particle size distributions were shown to be narrow and the mean sizes slightly decreased with higher molar fractions of palladium (diameter range 2.6 to 3.2 nm). In the catalytic hydrogenation of phenylacetylene, a strong dependence of the substrate conversion time on the Pd concentration was established, and selectivity towards the semihydrogenation product (styrene) was found to be close to 100 %. The selectivity dropped only shortly before the initial substrate was fully depleted.
Authors: A. Fabrizi, C. Paternoster, R. Cecchini, P.V. Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, A. Sheveyko, Marcello Cabibbo, Marie Haidopoulo, S. Spigarelli
Abstract: Thin nanostructured Ti-B-N-based films are known for their excellent mechanical properties and their stability at high temperature in oxidizing atmosphere. In the present work, nanostructured Ti-Al-Si-B-N and Ti-Cr-B-N coatings deposited on AISI 304 stainless steel by ion implantation have been characterized. To evaluate the oxidation resistance and thermal stability, the coatings were annealed at 900°C in vacuum and in air for 4 hours. The mechanical properties, phase composition and micro-structure of as-deposited and annealed coatings were addressed. The coatings showed a complex multilayered structure and a substantial change of their mechanical properties, due to the new structure and to the phases formed after air annealing.
Authors: Péter M. Nagy, P. Horváth, Gábor Pető, Erika Kálmán
Abstract: The nanoindentation behaviours of single crystalline silicon samples has gained wide attention in recent years, because of the anomaly effects in the loading curve, caused by the pressure induced phase transformation of silicon. To further enlighten the phenomenon bulk, ion-implanted, single crystalline Si samples have been studied by nanoindentation and by atomic force microscopy. The implantation of Si wafers was carried out by P+ ions at 40 KeV accelerating voltage and 80 ions/cm2 dose, influencing the defect density and structure of the Si material in shallow depth at the surface. Our experiments provide Young’s modulus and hardness data measured with Berkovich-, spherical- and cube corner indenters, statistics of the pop-in and pop-out effects in the loading- and unloading process, and interesting results about the piling-up behaviour of the Si material.
Authors: Michael E. Kassner, P. Geantil, L.E. Levine, B.C. Larson
Abstract: Backstresses or long range internal stresses (LRIS) in the past have been suggested by many to exist in plastically deformed crystalline materials. Elevated stresses can be present in regions of elevated dislocation density or dislocation heterogeneities in the deformed microstructures. The heterogeneities include edge dislocation dipole bundles (veins) and the edge dipole walls of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in cyclically deformed materials and cell and subgrain walls in monotonically deformed materials. The existence of long range internal stress is especially important for the understanding of cyclic deformation and also monotonic deformation. X-ray microbeam diffraction experiments performed by the authors using synchrotron x-ray microbeams determined the elastic strains within the cell interiors. The studies were performed using, oriented, monotonically deformed Cu single crystals. The results demonstrate that small long-range internal stresses are present in cell interiors. These LRIS vary substantially from cell to cell as 0 % to 50 % of the applied stress. The results are related to the Bauschinger effect, often explained in terms of LRIS.
Authors: H.J. McQueen, Paola Leo, Emanuela Cerri
Abstract: Constitutive equations for hot working are of great importance in optimizing forming processes to balance reductions in preheating and force, to avoid defects and to improve properties. Flow curve shapes and. constitutive parameters are affected by variations in composition, in homogenization, in grain morphology and significantly in texture. Confidence in published analyses is enhanced by existence of many data for the same or similar alloys. In this paper, constitutive equations have been collected for commercial Mg alloys from torsion, compression and tension tests in the range from 10-3 to 10 s-1 and 180 – 500°C. Some data were determined by the authors’ but more came from published reports; in some cases they have been re-calculated in a common manner. The deformation and restoration mechanisms that control the flow curve shape and the material parameters are summarized. Microstructure investigations of strained samples are illustrated. Applications to extrusion or rolling are discussed; comparisons to Al are made as appropriate.
Authors: Paola Leo, Emanuela Cerri, H.J. McQueen, Samanta Chiozzi
Abstract: In this study, the effect of various solution and aging treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties of an as cast Al-5.5Zn-1.2Mg alloy has been investigated by optical microscopy, hardness measurements and room temperature tensile test. The solution heat treatments performed at temperatures between 400 and 490°C have little effects on hardness while electrical conductivity values increased at the lower temperature because of dissolved atoms and vacancy rich clusters. Concerning aging, only T6 improves mechanical properties of the undeformed alloy, while aging performed on tensile tested samples results in a decrease of hardness due to accelerated kinetics and heterogeneous nucleation of equilibrium phase stimulated by dislocation network. Tensile tested samples of the as cast alloy exhibits the fastest recrystallization time during annealing because of the absence of fine precipitates and the high strain hardening.
Authors: Stefano Farè, Maurizio Vedani, Giuliano Angella
Abstract: The possibility of refining the grain structure of commercial Al-Mg-Si and Al-Mg-Mn alloys was evaluated using the asymmetric rolling technique in the severe plastic deformation regime. The study demonstrated that asymmetric rolling can readily promote the achievement of an ultrafine grained structure in the alloys investigated. Comparative analyses showed that by increasing the asymmetry ratio and by alternating the shear direction during rolling, higher hardness values and reduced crystallite size could be obtained in the alloys.

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