Abstract: The theromoelastic stress in post-growth SiC crystals has been investigated in order to suppress the cracks which were frequently observed in SiC crystals with larger diameters. Optimizing the temperature distribution in growing crystals lead to reduction of tensile stress components, and thus resulting in crack-free 100mm diameter SiC crystals with micropipe (MP) densities of 0.025/cm2. The concept of process optimization we established is confirmed to be effective to the growth of large diameter SiC crystals with mechanical stability.
Abstract: Recent advances in PVT c-axis growth process have shown a path for eliminating micropipes in 4HN-SiC, leading to the demonstration of zero micropipe density 100 mm 4HN-SiC wafers. Combined techniques of KOH etching and cross-polarizer inspections were used to confirm the absence of micropipes. Crystal growth studies for 3-inch material with similar processes have demonstrated a 1c screw dislocation median density of 175 cm-2, compared to typical densities of 2x103 to 4x103 cm-2 in current production wafers. These values were obtained through optical scanning analyzer methods and verified by x-ray topography.
Abstract: We carried out investigations to elucidate the reasons for polytype changes in 4H. The aim was to sustain polytype stability throughout the entire process. The investigations were accompanied by studies on the formation of basal plane dislocations and their role as source for stacking faults. Several methods for the evaluation of material properties were applied to determine quality most precisely, e.g. KOH-defect-etching, optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray-diffraction. We found out that several influences in growth conditions have to be controlled in a proper manner to achieve defect reduction. Based on these investigations we were able to improve our process and the crystal quality significantly. Best values for 3” 4H wafers show that EPD = 5x103 cm-2 , MPD < 0.1 cm-2 and FWHM-values < 15 arcsec can be achieved.
Abstract: Silicon carbide single crystals grown by the seeded physical vapour transport method have been investigated. These crystals were grown on the Si-face (0001) of 6H-SiC seeds. The growth proceeded under quasi-equilibrium conditions with the growth rate in the range 0.05-0.2 mm/h, that was extremely low as compared to used in standard growth processes. The shape and morphology of the crystallization fronts have been studied. Moreover, defects in crystals and wafers cut from these crystals were examined by optical and atomic force microscopy combined with KOH etching and X-Ray diffraction.
Abstract: We present p-type doping of bulk SiC crystals by the modified physical vapor transport (M-PVT) technique using TMA (Tri-Methyl-Aluminum). Using TMA as a dopant precursor allows a quite well defined crystal growth process control. The issue of improvement of conductivity (reduction of substrate resistivity) by reduction of unintentional acceptor compensation by nitrogen is addressed. It is shown that a decrease of compensation from approx. 3%...10% to approx. 0.5%...2.5% leads to a charge carrier mobility and, hence, conductivity increase of about factor two.
Abstract: Results on bulk growth of SiC crystals along rhombohedral [01-1n] directions are presented. 6H- and 4H-crystals were grown on rhombohedral planes, which make angles of about 45o with the (0001) plane. Etching features on three differently oriented planes cut from characteristic crystals were compared. Utmost care was concentrated on defect development in the case of non-conventional growth orientation using the seed cut from a “standard” (0001) crystal, containing a typical (standard for  growth) set of crystal defects. We clearly distinguished between a transient layer adjacent to the seed and the main crystal body grown at latter stages. The defect selection and/or transformation in the transient layer appeared strongly depending on the SiC polytype and growth direction. This study brings directly the information on stability of particular defects in the chosen crystal orientation and allows us to distinguish between defects characteristic for  and rhombohedral growth.