. In the present study, a method is presented combining surface nanocrystalline treatment (SMAT) and the co-rolling process. The aim of this duplex treatment is the development of a 316L stainless steel semi-massive multilayered bulk structure with improved yield and ultimate tensile strengths, while conserving an acceptable elongation to failure by optimizing the volume fraction and distribution of the nano-grains in the laminate. To characterize this composite structure, tensile tests as well as sharp nanoindentation tests were carried out to follow the local hardness evolution through the cross-section of the laminate. Furthermore, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were carried out to determine the correlation between the microstructure, the local hardness and the mechanical response of the structure.