Nucleation and Grain Refinement
The nucleation dynamics and grain refinement during solidification are reviewed. Control of the nucleation of phases is an essential step in the manufacture of optimized materials. Development of inoculants is still based on trial-and-error. Using aluminium as an example, it is shown that there is much room for significant improvements. Areas for future research are identified and important materials with an urgent need for grain refiners are shown.
A. Roósz, V. Mertinger, P. Barkóczy and Cs. Hoó
A. K. Dahle "Nucleation and Grain Refinement", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 649, pp. 287-293, 2010