X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Polyaniline-Cellulose Ester Composite Membranes
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a promising technique employed for the study of conducting polymers and their composites. XPS was used to study the surface chemistry of polyaniline-mixed cellulose ester (PANI-ME) composite membranes prepared by various chemical oxidative polymerization techniques such as insitu solution, vapour phase polymerizations and aniline polymerization using a two-compartment permeation cell. Hydrolytic degradation of surface deposited PANI and scission of cellulosic chains due to x-ray irradiation inside the XPS chamber influenced the quantification of polyaniline deposition levels as well as oxidation and doping states in PANI-ME membranes. N1s core level spectra allowed characterization of the PANI deposition level, its oxidation state and x-ray induced cellulosic ring cleavage. C1s and O1s core level spectra revealed PANI hydrolysis at the membrane surface. These degradation phenomena influence the performance of PANI composite membranes used specifically in electrodiffusion applications. It was shown that successful quantification of PANI deposition levels and its oxidation state on microporous mixed cellulose ester membranes using XPS could be realized by incorporating the degradation effects in the characterization results.
A. A. Qaiser and M. M. Hyland, "X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Polyaniline-Cellulose Ester Composite Membranes", Materials Science Forum, Vol. 657, pp. 35-45, 2010