Inductive Reheating of Steel Billets into the Semi-Solid State Based on Pyrometer Measurements
The aim of the paper is to demonstrate a control scheme by which it is possible to reproducibly reheat steel billets into the semi-solid state. Usually a heating program is used to reheat the billet into the semi-solid state. Our experiments showed that this control scheme leads to varying semi-solid fractions from one experiment to the next. To gain information about the billet’s state its temperature is often used since there is a known relationship between the temperature and the liquid fraction. Direct measurement of the temperature via thermocouples is not feasible in a production environment, therefore a radiation pyrometer has been used as a contact-less measurement device. The accuracy of the pyrometer depends heavily on the exact knowledge of the radiation coefficient, which can vary from billet to billet due to different surface properties and which is subject to change during the heating process. These uncertainties prohibit the implementation of a closed-loop control scheme since the exact temperature cannot be measured with the required accuracy. In order to be independent of the measurement errors the proposed control scheme only relies on the slope of the temperature. By detecting the distinct change of slope which occurs when the solidus temperature is crossed, the beginning of the melting process can be determined. The energy fed to the billet from this point onward determines the resulting liquid fraction. By detecting the entry into the solidusliquidus interval and then feeding the same amount of energy to each billet, it is guaranteed that the billet reaches the desired liquid fraction even by uncertain absolute value of the temperature and by small variations of the alloy composition. For the experiments the steel alloy X210 has been used and measurement data demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed control scheme.
C.G. Kang, S.K. Kim and S.Y. Lee
A. Schönbohm et al., "Inductive Reheating of Steel Billets into the Semi-Solid State Based on Pyrometer Measurements", Solid State Phenomena, Vols. 116-117, pp. 734-737, 2006