Bead Geometry Optimization of Submerged Arc Weld: Exploration of Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA)
The present work attempts to overcome underlying assumptions in traditional Taguchi based optimization techniques highlighted in literature. Taguchi method alone fails to solve multi-response optimization problems. In order to overcome this limitation, exploration of grey relation theory, desirability function approach, utility theory etc. have been found amply applied in literature in combination with Taguchi method. But aforesaid approaches relies on the assumption that individual response features are uncorrelated i.e. independent of each other which are really impossible to happen in practice. The study takes into account this response correlation and proposes an integrated methodology in a case study on optimization of multiple bead geometry parameters of submerged arc weldment. Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA) has been applied to eliminate response correlation and to convert correlated responses into equal or less number of uncorrelated quality indices called principal components. Based on individual principal components a Multi-response Performance Index (MPI) has been introduced to derive an equivalent single objective function which has been optimized (maximized) using Taguchi method. Experiments have been conducted based on Taguchi’s L25 Orthogonal Array design with combinations of process control parameters: voltage, wire feed, welding speed and electrode stick-out. Different bead geometry parameters: bead width, bead height, penetration depth and HAZ dimensions have been optimized. Optimal result has been verified by confirmatory test. The study highlights effectiveness of the proposed method for solving multi-objective optimization of submerged arc weld.
A. Biswas et al., "Bead Geometry Optimization of Submerged Arc Weld: Exploration of Weighted Principal Component Analysis (WPCA)", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 110-116, pp. 790-798, 2012