Deformation Evaluation of Solder Ball Joints by Electromotive Force
Deformation measurements with a thermocouple were applied in a deformation test of solder joints. The thermocouple is effectively combined with a conventional testing machine. The lead–solder and non–lead solder joints were pulled and sheared. The load-displacement and electromotive force (Emf)–displacement curves can be continuously derived from the signals of a load cell and the thermocouple. The Emfs in tension were compared with that in shear. The maximum Emf value in tension was larger than the emf value in shear, which meant in weakness of the solder joint in shear. Fracture occurred at the interface between the copper layer pad and solder, and the obtained Emf is closely related to fracture at the interface. The maximum Emf value in the non-lead solder was smaller than the Emf value in the lead–solder.
J.M. Dulieu-Barton, J.D. Lord and R.J. Greene
T. Kumazawa and K. Kaminishi, "Deformation Evaluation of Solder Ball Joints by Electromotive Force", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 13-14, pp. 233-238, 2008