Analysis of the Strain and Stress Fields of Cardboard Box during Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation
Corrugated boards with small flutes appear as good alternatives to replace packaging folding boards or plastic materials due their small thickness, possibility of easy recycling and biodegradability. Boxes made up of these materials have to withstand significant compressive loading conditions during transport and storage. In order to evaluate their structural performance, the box compression test is the most currently performed experiment. It consists in compressing an empty container between two parallel plates at constant velocity. Usually it is observed that buckling phenomena are localized in the box panels, which bulge out during compression . At the maximum recorded compression force, the deformation localises around the box corners where creases nucleate and propagate. This maximum force is defined as the quasi-static compression strength of the box. The prediction of such strength is the main topic of interest of past and current research works. For example, the box compression behaviour of boxes was studied by Mc Kee et al.  and Urbanik , who defined semi-empirical formula to predict the box compression strength, as well as by Beldie et al.  and Biancolini et al.  by finite element simulations. But comparisons of these models with experimental results remain rather scarce and limited.
R.A.W. Mines and J.M. Dulieu-Barton
J. Viguié et al., "Analysis of the Strain and Stress Fields of Cardboard Box during Compression by 3D Digital Image Correlation", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 24-25, pp. 103-108, 2010