The effects of cooling gallery position on the piston temperature field and thermal stress are studied. A finite element model of 1015 engine piston is developed using Pro/E software and finite element analyses are achieved through ANSYS code. Numerical simulations are performed to find the temperature and thermal stress change rules with regard to the cooling gallery position. The results demonstrate that the axial direction position of cooling gallery has obvious effects on the piston temperature while the radial direction position of cooling gallery affects the piston thermal stress a lot. The highest position of cooling gallery should be as the same line as the top of the first ring groove. The distance between cooling gallery and piston radial edge should be more than a certain value to decrease the temperature gradient and thermal stress concentration.