Based on topology optimization techniques of structural mechanics, an effective method for solving the structural design problems of heat transfer is presented in this paper. The topology optimization model of heat conduction is then constructed and the corresponding Optimization Criteria based on density approach is inferred to solve the optimal heat conduction equation of temperature field. A Filtering technique is employed in density field to eliminate numerical instabilities in the process of topology optimization. Some numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the applicability of the present method, theory and algorithm. This research provides a new idea and an access to the structural topology optimization design of temperature field, and is of good engineering application value.