Investigation on Failure Mode of Spruce under Different Loading Conditions
Compression experiments of spruce along axial, radial and tangential loading directions are implemented by INSTRON equipment. Mechanical properties of spruce along three directions are gained. Spruce microscopic cell failure modes under axial, radial and tangential compression condition are observed by scan electron microscope. Results show that failure modes of spruce are fiber buckling and wrinkle when loading direction is along the grain. When loading direction is along radial or tangential across to the grain, failure modes are wood fiber slippage and delamination. Theory analytic solution to single wood cell failure under different direction compression is done. The obtained expression shows that mean limit loading is relative to yield stress, cell structure dimension and wrinkle length for complete wrinkle cases.
Linli Xu, Wenya Tian and Elwin Mao
W. Z. Zhong et al., "Investigation on Failure Mode of Spruce under Different Loading Conditions", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 80-81, pp. 556-560, 2011