Based on the two-dimensional Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) principle of close-range digital photogrammetry and mathematical principle of the linear neuron, the equivalent relationship between linear neural network and the two-dimensional DLT of close-range digital photogrammetry is discussed. A neural network with 2 linear neurons, 6 input parameters and 2 output parameters is established to simulate the two-dimensional DLT. The network can be trained using a set of grid points in the control coordinate system with known world coordinates and pixel coordinates. The weights and biases of trained network contain camera interior and exterior parameters. A new digital photographic technique is put forward combined camera self-calibration based on neural network with non-linear pixel coordinates correction of lens distortion. The indoor survey test indicates that measurement is more accuracy. Meanwhile, the new technology is successfully used in crack monitor of a bridge pier.