This paper takes plantation pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica litv. as study object, determines main anatomical factors influencing wood dyeing effects by measuring the related indexes of wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects, making a multiple regression analysis of them and analyzing the correlation variation law between wood anatomical structure and dyeing effects. The results show that there is a high correlation between pinus sylvestnis var. mongolica litv. dyeing effects and wood anatomical factors and the multiple correlation coefficients between anatomical factors and various dyeing effect indexes are between 0.573 and 0.786. The main anatomical factors influencing pinus sylvestnis var.mongolica litv.dyeing effects are tracheid proportion, wood ray proportion, resin canal proportion and late wood tracheid length, etc.