A series of zinc oxide-modified mesoporous SBA-15 materials were synthesized. The desulphurization test with a gas mixture containing 0.1 vol % hydrogen sulfide was carried out on these materials. Materials before and after the desulphurization test were analyzed using a variety of characterization techniques. The results suggest that zinc oxide modification can accelerate the transformation from a mesoporous to a zeolitic phase. The sample with the zinc content higher than 15.5 wt % shows the highest hydrogen sulfide breakthrough capacity up to 177.3 mg S/g.