ZnO nanodot arrays were fabricated by using AAO template combining with sol-gel method. Structure and optical properties of ZnO/AAO composite structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The SEM results indicated that the pores in the template were arranged in a regular hexagonal lattice and ZnO nanodots were assembled into the AAO template. The XRD patterns demonstrated that the AAO template had an amorphous structure, and the ZnO nanodots had wurtzite structures. The PL spectrum revealed that ZnO/AAO composite structure had a strong ultraviolet emission at 390 nm.