The Mechanism of Explosive Spalling and Measures to Resistant Spalling of Concrete Exposed to High Temperature by Incorporating Fibers: A Review
Many experimental researches have been conducted on explosive spalling performance of concrete of high-strength / high performance concrete (HSC/HPC). This paper summarizes two main explosive spalling mechanisms (Vapor pressure build-up mechanism and Thermal stress mechanism) of concrete at elevated temperature, and also presents the measures to resistant the explosive spalling, i.e. by incorporating fibers (polypropylene fiber(PPF), steel fiber(SF) and hybrid fiber of the first two). Finally, the further studies of both the mechanism and the measures are proposed. Also, the preliminary study of ultra high-strength concrete (UHSC) on fire-resistance are mentioned.
J. Yang and G. F. Peng, "The Mechanism of Explosive Spalling and Measures to Resistant Spalling of Concrete Exposed to High Temperature by Incorporating Fibers: A Review", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 168-170, pp. 773-777, 2011