Mechanical Properties of Flip-Chip Solder Joints Effected by Electromigration
A frequent cause of failure of portable and hand-held devices is an accidental drop to the ground. The effect of electromigration on the mechanical properties of solder joints was discussed in this paper. Without current stressing, the samples were broken in the bulk of solder or at the interface of Al interconnect and solder. If the Al-solder interfacial mechanical strength was improved by changed the interfacial structure or optimized the jointing process, the flip chip devices would show the lonely ductile fracture in the bulk of solder. After electromigration the samples were broken abruptly at the interface near the chip side while the bulk of the solder joints maintained the original shape. Due to the interfacial reaction and the polarity effect of electromigration on the interfaces, a ductile solder joint can become a brittle solder joint. The ductile-to-brittle transition is very sensitive to a high speed shear stress applied to the joints. Because solder alloys are ductile by nature, it is of interest to understand how electromigration can influence the mechanical properties of solder joints’ interfaces and change their ductile nature. Owing to the polarity effect of electromigration, vacancies will accumulate to form voids at the cathode interface of solder joints. Besides, much more intermetallic compound formation at the joint interfaces also caused the ductile-to-brittle transition. Thus the interfaces become more and more brittle with time due to IMC formation or vacancy accumulation from electromigration.
Zhengyi Jiang, Shanqing Li, Jianmin Zeng, Xiaoping Liao and Daoguo Yang
Y. D. Lu et al., "Mechanical Properties of Flip-Chip Solder Joints Effected by Electromigration", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 189-193, pp. 1009-1013, 2011