High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB), a novel high-power energetic beam technology, has been developed as a useful tool for surface modification of materials. In the present work, the effect of HCPEB treatment on microstructure and wear resistance of Al-15Si and ZK60-1Y Mg alloys was investigated. The results show that a supersaturated solid solution of (Al) and (Mg) is formed on top surface of melted layer induced by rapid heating and cooling during HCPEB process. In addition, the melted layer of approximately 5~11μm thickness is obtained on the ZK60-1Y Mg alloy surface. Wear resistance of Al-15Si and ZK60-1Y Mg alloys are significantly improved after HCPEB treatment. It is demonstrated that HCPEB technology has a good application future in enhancing surface properties of Al-Si and Mg alloys.