COF Measurement of Tubes by Hydraulic Bulging with Radial Crushing
A new method of determining the coefficient of friction (COF) in expansion zone of tube hydroforming (THF) is proposed. The measuring method features that a round tube is hydro-formed into a square one by a radial compression accompanying a constant internal hydraulic pressure p, and the difference ΔL of the two diagonal lengths of the square section of deformed tube is taken as measuring index for COF. The relationships between the ΔL and the p, COF, relative displacement S/S0 of moving punches are established by the finite element (FE) simulation of the forming process. The COF can be determined by matching the indexes ΔL from experiments and simulation. The FE simulation results show that the measuring index ΔL is in exponent proportion to COF and the internal pressure p, it is extremely sensitive to the friction force or COF and conveniently measured and especially under a higher internal pressure.
Zhengyi Jiang, Shanqing Li, Jianmin Zeng, Xiaoping Liao and Daoguo Yang
L. F. Yang et al., "COF Measurement of Tubes by Hydraulic Bulging with Radial Crushing", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 189-193, pp. 2597-2600, 2011