Due to developing the strengthening effect of liquid jet peening on the surface modification for metallic materials, in this study, an emulsion jet peening is produced by injecting a high-speed emulsion jet into an emulsion filled tank. The test system and fixed emulsion of cavitation jet was developed. High speed photography technique was used to observe and analysis the structure of emulsion cavitation jet at various upstream pressures . The results indicate that the structure of emulsion cavitation jet in terms of jet impact pressure, intensive degree and uniformity is better than that water jet. The jet structure depends on the jet pressure. The cavitation jet length increases rapidly at the initial stage and then it stabilizes after few milliseconds. The stabilized length of jet increases and the diverges angle decreases with increasing pressures. Specimens made of plan carbon steel (Q235A, China standard) were exposed to emulsion jet peening at the stand-off distances of 20 mm with a constant upstream pressure, 20 MPa for 60 s. The fatigue test shows that the crack initiation life by treatment of emulsion jet peening increases about 12.5% and 20.2% compared to water jet and unpeened specimen respectively.