Wearability of polyester textile is very outstanding in chemical fabric；silkworm pupae protein has good biocompatibility. In order to make a new kind of polyester textile which not only has good wearability, but also has good biocompatibility, the polyester fibers were semi-encased with sucrose ester to endue polyester fibers with reacting hydroxyl groups, and then silkworm pupae protein was grafted on surface of polyester fiber textile with a crosslinkage compound in this study. The structure of polyester textile grafted with silkworm pupae protein were studied by SEM, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC). The polyester fibers were enclosed by layer of materials in SEM, X-ray diffraction showed silkworm pupae protein was random coil conformation, DSC exhibited the thermal property of polyester fibers almost did not change. The wearability of polyester fabric grafted silkworm pupae protein was measured too. With the increase of grafting silkworm pupae protein rate on polyester fabric, moisture permeability of polyester fabric increased firstly and decreased a little subsequently, the moister regain increased monotonously, the cockle elasticity decreased a little, the whiteness almost did not change, and flexural stiffness increased a little.