Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is used in bioleaching industrial operations to recover metal ions from mineral sulfides. Chalcopyrite and bornite are copper sulfides that have the same elemental composition, but differ in their susceptibility to the bioleaching process. Our objective was to identify differentially expressed proteins in A. ferrooxidans LR cells exposed to chalcopyrite or bornite, as a sole energy source, for 24 hours. Compared to the control (without minerals), proteins were induced or repressed in planktonic cells after contact with chalcopyrite or bornite by 24 hours. These results demonstrated that the time of exposure to the copper minerals was enough to trigger distinct responses in the A. ferrooxidans metabolism.