Parameter Optimization in the Extraction of Sea Cucumber (Holothuria scabra j) as a Source of Testosterone
Testosterone, the steroid hormone used in sex reversal and as an aphrodisiac, is produced not only by sea cucumber, but many other organisms too. This research was aimed at optimizing conventional extraction of testosterone from sea cucumber, looking at method, type of solvent, solvent ratio, and temperature for isolation. The results showed that extraction by reflux produced the highest testosterone content, followed by soxhlet extraction. The lowest yield was produced by maceration extraction. The solvents selected were acetone, methanol, methanol/chloroform mixture (1:2) and chloroform. The highest result was obtained by methanol/chloroform (0.2728 mg /100g dry weight (dw)), followed by acetone (0.2623 mg), chloroform (0.1606 mg) and methanol (0.0920 mg). Ratios of material:solvent used were 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 respectively. Results improved as the amount of solvent was increased, so a ratio of 1:3 was most successful and 1:1 least successful. The effects of temperature and time on scale-up reflux extraction were also studied. Scale-up reflux extraction of 3000 ml showed that raising the temperature increases the percentage of sea cucumber extract.
Zhong Cao, Lixian Sun, Xueqiang Cao, Yinghe He
K. H. Dewi et al., "Parameter Optimization in the Extraction of Sea Cucumber (Holothuria scabra j) as a Source of Testosterone", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 233-235, pp. 1358-1365, 2011