A self-designed constant temperature fermenter was manufactured and used for this study. Dry anaerobic fermentation experiments were conducted with sugarcane leaf residue as raw material. With the C/N ratio being 25:1, various total solids concentrations (TS), inoculum sizes and fermentation temperatures were selected to study biogas production characteristics. The experiment results showed that biogas yield increased rapidly during the initial stage of reaction, decreased quickly after reaching the peak, and the decrease slowed down at some level. Orthogonal experiment results showed that both fermentation temperature and solids concentration showed significant effects on gas production yield. Fermentation temperature showed the most significant effect, while the effect of inoculum size was not significant on gas yield. The optimum fermentation performance was obtained at 20% solid content, 35°C fermentation temperature, and 30% inoculum size.