Based on experimental and computational fluid dynamics analysis, the phenomenon of particle back-mixing near the dust outlet in cyclone separator with tangential inlet was studied. The results show that particle back-mixing appears near the dust outlet geometry. Particle back-mixing can be divided into dust hopper back-mixing and discharge cone back-mixing for different generation mechanism. The upward flow coming from dust hopper, which occupies 17.7% of the inlet gas, can induce dust hopper back-mixing. The particle mass flow rate that caused by dust hopper back-mixing occupies 46.6% of total inlet particle mass flow rate. Precessing vortex core, bias flow and high turbulent intensity near the dust outlet can induce discharge cone back-mixing. For both dust hopper back-mixing and discharge cone back-mixing, particle back-mixing is serious near the dust outlet geometry, which occupies 56.8% of total inlet particle mass flow rate. Particle which is smaller than 18μm can mix backward. The axial distribution of particle concentration decreases sharply in a range of 1.5 D (cyclone diameter) height above the dust discharge port. At last, only 2.6% of back-mixing particles with diameter no bigger than 13μm escape from vortex finder. This effect on separator efficiency increases with the particle diameter decreases.