The fire experiment was conducted for three of circular steel tubes protected with two different gypsum fireproof panel and the steel tube without any protective material. The fire response temperature of surface of steel tubes was measured and the axial compressive bearing capacity of the specimens after fire were tested and analyzed. The test results show that gypsum fireproof panel has better fire protection characteristics. It is noted that the variation of temperatures of inner surface of gypsum fireproof panel under fire is consistent with the temperature of outer surface of the steel tube. The maximum difference of temperature between the outer surface of the tube and the furnace space is 150°C as the fire keeps stable for the steel tube without any protection. It is concluded that two of the specimens protected with gypsum fireproof panel have larger post-fire capacity, which means that the gypsum fireproof panel has better effect on fireproof of the steel tube under fire.