Field Estimates of Hydraulic Resistance of Ice-Covered Rivers
A large volume of velocity profiles measured from ice-covered rivers is used to estimate the composite Manning’s coefficient no associated with the ice and riverbed. Estimates are obtained using four methods, based on (I) depth-averaged and maximum velocities, (II) logarithmic velocity distributions fitted to field data, (III) energy slope combined with the logarithmic velocity distributions, and (IV) the Manning’s equation. Estimates of the composite coefficient range from 0.012 to 0.040. The coefficient can increase up to seven-fold through the winter. Method (II) has shown advantages. The energy slope appears to be between 25% and 50% of the water slope.
Guangfan Li, Yong Huang and Chaohe Chen
S. Li "Field Estimates of Hydraulic Resistance of Ice-Covered Rivers", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 250-253, pp. 3880-3883, 2011