In order to study the influence of the geometry and material properties on the service life of converters, different geometry and material properties of the converters were analyzed by using finite element method in this paper. A mechanical and thermal coupling diagram was introduced to optimize the geometric figure and material properties of the converter by software ABAQUS. The damage of converters was investigated, especially in the lower brick layers of the wall (the bottom wall transition zone). The result indicates both the ladder of the converter with small steps and a proper inclination at the joint between the bottom and wall of converters can reduce the stresses, which make the refractory material damage decrease. The working lining with high conductivity and low thermal expansion will make the thermal stress of the converter lower, which reduces the crack of the converter. The relations between the obtained results and the corresponding lining design and the material properties give a good insight into the reasons of refractory material failure and help to find counter-measures.