Compression tests of 7050 aluminum alloy have been conducted at different temperatures (340, 380, 420, and 460 °C) with strain rate of 0.1 s-1. The deformation behavior and service performance of the alloy are investigated using EBSD technique, TEM and hardness measurement. Results show that the volume fraction of recrystallized grains increases with the increase of deformation temperature. The primary softening mechanisms of the alloy deformed at 340, 380, and 420 °C are dynamic recovery, and dynamic recrystallization is the main softening mechanism of the alloy deformed at 460 °C. The hardness of the 7050 aluminum alloy deformed increases with increasing deformation temperature. Dynamic precipitation appears when the 7050 aluminum alloy was deformed at 340, 380, and 420 °C, and strengthening mechanisms include mechanical hardening and precipitation strengthening. When deformation temperature is 460 °C, solid solution strengthening and grain boundary strengthening are primary strengthening mechanisms.