Eu3+ -doped GdVO4 powders have been synthesized via a novel hydrothermal method using commercially available Gd2O3, NH4VO3 and Eu2O3 as the reacting precursors. The influences of several important parameters, such as hydrothermal temperature, reaction time and pH value, of the experiment were investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and photo-luminescence spectroscopy (PL). The experimental results showed that the optimal reaction condition was processed at 180°C for 12 h and adjusted pH value to 4. The morphology of products was uniform pseudo-octahedron with a little conglomeration. All the phosphors exhibit the characteristic dominant red emission of Eu3+ ion (5D0 → 7F2) at 618nm.