The finite element software was applied to simulate the splitting test of asphalt mixture, and the computational formula of resilient modulus was fitted out. On the basis of the measured resilient deformation from the splitting test, the computation process of splitting resilient modulus of the asphalt mixture was illustrated in detail. The splitting resilient moduli of the asphalt mixtures at three temperatures were analyzed. Finally the resilient moduli of the asphalt mixture measured through three kinds of tests were compared with each other. The results are of significance in the determination of resilient modulus of the asphalt mixture and parameter selection in specifications for asphalt pavement design.