With the rapid development and versatile applications of nanotechnology, a large quantity of nanoparticles (NPs) has been released into the environment. It has been one of the most popular studies that concerning about the toxic effect of NPs on the organism of the total environment. This paper reviews the new results that reflect the impact of NPs on the algae. It also concludes the new researches from the fate and behaviors of the NPs, the ecotoxicology to the algae and the possible mechanism. Finally, there is an expectation concerning the study of toxicity of NPs to the algae, and propose what should investigate in future.