Though C. fluminea is always used as a biomonitor to evaluate the aquatic environment, the adaptive mechanism to chromium is far from clear. In this paper, an acute toxicity experiment was conducted to study the alterations in Cr accumulation, nutrient uptake and oxidative response in Corbicula fluminea exposed to Cr6+. Cr content increased in C. fluminea with the increase of exterior Cr6+ concentration while the Cr bioaccumulation factor decreased. The Cr6+ application disturbed the uptake of Zn, P, Cu, Fe, and Mn content. Increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased catalase activity were detected in whole body, mantle, viscera and pleopod. The MDA accumulation in these organs is in sequence, viscera > mantal > whole body > pleopod, suggesting viscera is more sensitive to Cr than other organs. The results also indicate that Cr6+ stress disturbs the balance of nutrient uptake and causes the lipid peroxidation in C. fluminea.