The microcystins (MCs) were released by alge cells rupture when cyanobacterial blooms occur in eutrophic freshwater body. MCs are toxic, which have been considered as potential tumor promoters. MCs usually exist in water by the level of ng/L - μg/L. In this paper, the pre-treatment techniques for determinating the trace MCs, including solid-phase extraction (SPE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), immune affinity chromatography (IAC), cloud point extraction (CPE) are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are presented. Chromatography analysis methods are also reviewed.