Surface Modification and Deuterium Retention in Tungsten and Molybdenum Exposed to Low-Energy, High Flux Deuterium Plasmas
Deuterium retention in single crystal and polycrystalline tungsten and molybdenum exposed to low-energy (38200 eV/D), high ion flux (10211022 D/m2s) deuterium plasmas at various temperatures were examined with the D(3He,p)4He nuclear reaction at a 3He energy varied from 0.69 to 4.0 MeV, and with thermal desorption spectroscopy. The surface morphology was examined by scanning electron microscope. Blisters formed on the Mo surfaces under plasma exposure are significantly larger in size than those for W. The D retention in the W and Mo samples increases with the exposure temperature, reaching its maximum at about 500 and 530 K (for ion fluxes of 1021 and 1022 D/m2/s), respectively, and then decreases as the temperature grows further. For polycrystalline W and Mo exposed at temperatures above 400 K, the D retention in the bulk (far beyond the ion implanted zone) is dominant. Plastic deformation caused by deuterium super-saturation within the near-surface layer is suggested as a mechanism for blister formation and creation of defects responsible for deuterium trapping at depths up to several micrometers.
Ch. Linsmeier and M. Reinelt
V. K. Alimov et al., "Surface Modification and Deuterium Retention in Tungsten and Molybdenum Exposed to Low-Energy, High Flux Deuterium Plasmas", Advanced Materials Research, Vol. 59, pp. 42-45, 2009