The nanopowdered VP108 was selected and applied into the base asphalt binder and mixture. The Marshall binder and mixture tests were conducted to evaluate the mechanical and pavement performance of base and VP108 modified asphalt binders and mixtures. The test results present that the penetration, softening point, penetration index and ductility of VP108 modified asphalt binder improved compared to the base asphalt binder. The mixture test results display that the compression strength, water susceptibility, resilient modulus and cleavage strength of VP108 modified asphalt mixture enhance compared to the base asphalt mixture. Therefore, the overall performance of VP108 modified asphalt binder and mixture improves compared to the base asphalt binder and mixture, such as the high temperature performance, resilient modulus and water resistance property.