Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 7A09 aluminum alloy ribbon prepared by rapid cooling solidification are studied. Single roller is applied to produce rapid solidification ribbon of 7A09 aluminum alloys. Microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties of the rapid solidified ribbon of 7A09 aluminum alloys are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness measurement. The results show that the rotate speed of the roller is the key factor affecting the ability of the forming ribbon. At a roller rotate speed of 1500rpm, the ribbon with a good quality can be obtained. Microstructure features of the rapid solidification ribbon are refined with the increase of the cooling rate, all of the crystals translate into nanocrystalline. All the hardness of the rapid solidification ribbon of 7A09 aluminum alloys is higher than that of the original alloys and increases with the rotate speed of the rotor.