Removal of Toxic Arsenic and Antimony from Groundwater Spiro Tunnel Bulkhead in Park City Utah Using Colloidal Iron Hydroxide: Comparison with Reverse Osmosis
Verification testing of two model technologies in pilot scale to remove arsenic and antimony based on reverse osmosis and chemical coagulation/filtration systems was conducted in Spiro Tunnel Water Filtration Plant located in Park City, Utah, US. The source water was groundwater in abandoned silver mine, naturally contaminated by 60-80 ppb of arsenic and antimony below 10 ppb. This water represents one of the sources of drinking water for Park City and constitutes about 44% of the water supply. The failure to remove antimony efficiently by coagulation/filtration (only 4.4% removal rate) under design conditions is discussed in terms of the chemistry differences between Sb (III, V) and As (III, V). Removal of Sb(V) at pH > 7, using coagulation/filtration technology, requires much higher (50 to 80 times) concentration of iron (III) than As. The stronger adsorption of arsenate over a wider pH range can be explained by the fact that arsenic acid is tri-protic, whereas antimonic acid is monoprotic. This difference in properties of As(V) and Sb(V) makes antimony (V) more difficult to be efficiently removed in low concentrations of iron hydroxide and alkaline pH waters, especially in concentration of Sb < 10 ppb.
M. S. J. Hashmi, B. S. Yilbas and S. Naher
Z. Pawlak et al., "Removal of Toxic Arsenic and Antimony from Groundwater Spiro Tunnel Bulkhead in Park City Utah Using Colloidal Iron Hydroxide: Comparison with Reverse Osmosis", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 83-86, pp. 553-562, 2010