Adsorption of Biomolecules on Ceramic Particles and the Impact on Biomedical Applications
Protein adsorption onto metal oxide surfaces is an essential aspect of the cascade of biological reactions taking place at all interfaces between implanted materials and the biological environment. The types and amounts of adsorbed proteins mediate subsequent adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Protein adsorption to surfaces of metal oxides and their kinetics are important in the formation and growth of seashells, one of the toughest natural ceramics, in modern bio-analytical devices as well as in bone and teeth implant technology. This paper describes results obtained in a feasibility study of how to use metal-oxide particles to obtain biosensors with a high turnover. The most important features of proteins are outlined describing them as purpose-built "polymers" from amino acids with specific conformations. Some key aspects of Metaloxide (MeO) surfaces in water and the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction on protein adsorption are reported. Results concerning the interaction between different proteins and MeO surfaces in water are discussed in detail. Examples of purely electrostatic interactions of proteins with MeO surfaces as well as the influence of hydrophobic interaction are elucidated. An outlook of the implications of the new insights on natural and synthetic materials will be given concerning bio-compatibility, bio-mineralization and self assembly of materials.
L. J. Gauckler and K. Rezwan, "Adsorption of Biomolecules on Ceramic Particles and the Impact on Biomedical Applications", Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 45, pp. 741-751, 2006