Anti-Sticking Properties of PVD CrWNx, CrOx and ZrOx Coatings on Medical Electrode Application
The side effect of electrosurgery includes tissue charring, smoke generation and the adhesion of tissue to electrodes. These effects prolong surgery and interfere with effective coagulation. In this paper, CrWNx, CrOx and ZrOx coating were prepared by an unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of films was characterized using XRD, XPS, TEM and AFM. The hydrophobicity and surface energy of coatings were calculated by contact angle measurement and Wu harmonic mean approach. Anti-sticking in vitro test was performed by monopolar electrosurgery using pork liver tissue. The hardness of CrWNx , ZrOx and CrOx coatings were 44 GPa, 26.3 GPa and 20.7 GPa, respectively. The CrOx coating had the lowest surface energy 33.5 mN/m and the highest contact angle of water as high as 103°. The high surface O-H bonds density of CrOx coating and N-H bonds density of CrWNx coating could explain about their lower polar component of surface energy. All the three PVD coatings remarkably reduced the quantity of tissue adhesion on the electrode from about 2 times (ZrOx and CrWNx coatings) to 4.88 times (CrOx coating) than uncoated SUS304 electrode.
Andreas Öchsner, Graeme E. Murch, Ali Shokuhfar and João M.P.Q. Delgado
Y.L. Hsu et al., "Anti-Sticking Properties of PVD CrWNx, CrOx and ZrOx Coatings on Medical Electrode Application", Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vols. 297-301, pp. 656-663, 2010