Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering

ISSN: 2297-816X

Main Themes

Edited by: D.J. Fisher
Online since: August 2015
Description: There are relatively few revolutions in the venerable and rather staid field of metallurgy. One can count among them the advent of metallic glasses, of superplastic metals, or of memory-alloys. The latest revolution involves the relatively staid topic of alloy formulation, but is all the more startling because the resultant materials break every long-cherished rule of alloy design. In particular, the famous empirical rules of Hume-Rothery are completely ignored. That is, in the archetypal high-entropy alloy, five metals are alloyed together in equal proportions regardless of atomic-size difference, valence or crystal structure. Commonsense would tell any experienced metallurgist that that could result only in a uselessly brittle mass of intermetallic compounds. But in a truly paradigm-shifting manner, Professor J.W.Yeh of Taiwan correctly predicted that a high configurational entropy could suppress the appearance of detrimental intermetallic compounds and lead to simple familiar microstructures having very useful properties. High-Entropy Alloys can exhibit, for instance, astounding hardness and strength and also have a very good corrosion resistance. The present book summarises the microstructures and properties of all of the high-entropy alloys.


Edited by: Raymond C. Sangster and David J. Fisher
Online since: May 2015
Description: The elements: Si, N, O, C and H, have strong chemical affinities for one another. Under the correct conditions, Si-N bonding will occur in almost any Si-N-(O/C/H), and many related, reaction systems; although Si-O and Si-C are formidable competitors to Si-N. The most favored Si-N compound is stoichiometric Si3N4. It comes in three common varieties. How they interrelate, how one finds them and (above all ) how one makes them - and how sometimes they just happen to form - are the subjects of this book, with due attention being paid to closely related matters. This revised second edition summarizes and integrates what is recorded in the world literature from 1857through 2014 as being known about the formation of silicon nitride – Si3N4 – and itsclose relatives. The book is the key to all that has been learned, over the past 150 years, about how silicon nitride comes to exist: in nature, in the laboratory or in the factory and in many reaction systems; together with how it is used in ceramics, electronic films, optical coatings and many other ways (including an introduction to closely related substances). It will aid the researcher in designing new projects, the supervisor in briefing new employees, the salesman in working with new customers, the patent attorney in assessing patents and the professor in designing graduate course assignments. This comprehensive reference gathers information published on the chemistry of silicon nitride and its products, uses, and markets. Separate chapters overview the manufacture of silicon nitride powder, the production of silicon nitride ceramics via the reaction bonding process, the intrinsic reactions between crystalline silicon surfaces and N2 for silicon wafers, nitridation of Si-O based materials, and chemical vapor deposition of Si-H compounds.


Edited by: Janette Brezinová, Anna Guzanová and Dagmar Draganovská
Online since: April 2015
Description: Blasting is currently the technology with significant application in practice with a variety of materials used as blasting media. The scientific-pedagogical team of Department of Mechanical Technology and Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Slovakia, focuses on the theoretical basics of blasting process in terms of cleaning and roughening effect focusing on wide range of metallic and non-metallic blasting media. The achieved results were obtained during the completion of a number of research tasks at different levels, completion of tasks for manufacturing practice as well as through dissertations and theses. Original findings contained in this monograph will contribute to expanding of the knowledge base of scientific researchers as well as to the transfer of the research results into practice. The monograph will serve as a source of scientific and technical information for scientific researchers, workers of technical institutes and the general scientific community.


Edited by: Natalia Resnina and Vasili Rubanik
Online since: March 2015
Description: The collective monograph consists of five parts: Theory and modeling of martensitic transformation and functional properties; Martensitic transformations and shape memory effects; Controlling the functional properties of shape memory alloys; Shape memory alloys with complex structure; Application of shape memory alloys) covering of all aspects of shape memory alloys from theory and modelling to applications. It presents the scientific results obtained by leading scientific teams studying shape memory alloys in the former Soviet Republics together with their colleagues from other countries during the last decade.


Edited by: Farhad Aslani
Online since: March 2015
Description: Experimental programs in laboratories give real results to identify nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) structures but they are limited to knowledge of particular cases under restricted structural dimensions, sizes, shapes, loading and boundary conditions but the computational simulation approach has no limit to its application. Constitutive models are developed to simulate the dynamic nonlinear response of concrete and steel reinforcement subjected to cyclic loading varying randomly in magnitude. The behavior of structural concrete under monotonic loading is affected by important material aspects including cracking, crushing, tension stiffening, compression softening and bond slip. Reversed cyclic loading introduces further complexities such as stiffness degradation in concrete and the Bauschinger effect in reinforcing steel. In this research the validity and reliability of some proposed constitutive models for concrete considering general loading i.e. cyclic, monotonic, partial, common point and transition loading are evaluated. Amongst many existing constitutive models, because of their simplicity and common usage in the finite element analysis of RC structures, only some common proposed models based on nonlinear elasticity-based approach are investigated. These models are verified against experimental data available in the literature and the results are discussed. In this study, also, a hysteretic stress–strain model is developed for unconfined concrete with the intention of providing efficient modeling for the structural behavior of concrete in seismic regions. The proposed model is based on the findings of previous experimental and analytical studies. The model for concrete subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading, comprises four components in compression and tension; an envelope curve (for monotonic and cyclic loading), an unloading curve, a reloading curve, and transition curve. Also presented are formulations for partial unloading and partial reloading curves. The proposed Constitutive model reliability is investigated by RC members non-linear finite element analysis (FEM) using by finite element software ABAQUS. Comparisons with test results showed that the proposed model provides a good fit to a wide range of experimentally established hysteresis loops.


Edited by: Andrzej Stokłosa
Online since: March 2015
Description: In the present work, in Part I, new elements widening the bases of the defects theory are shown; particularly, this work discusses the mechanism of the formation of defects as a result of elementary processes; the work also presents a description of the equilibrium state by one equation, taking into account the concentrations of defects and their changes during the process of reaching the equilibrium. The equation relates the concentrations of defects, dependent on the standard Gibbs energies of their formation, with the equilibrium pressure of oxygen. The obtained relations and the discussion have lead to the development of a method for determination of complete diagrams of concentrations of the point defects, which allows taking into account the minority defects. Part II presents the results of the calculations of the diagrams of point defects’ concentrations for a series of pure and doped oxides of transition metals 3d, with different composition (M/O ratio), crystallographic structure and point defects’ structure. A critical analysis of the results of the studies of the deviation from the stoichiometry and the electrical conductivity, obtained (so far) by most research groups has been also performed. A new interpretation of these results, concerning concentrations and types of ionic defects present has been performed and the mobility of electronic defects and its dependence on the temperature and oxygen pressure have been determined.


Edited by: Wolfgang Gräfe
Online since: March 2015
Description: This treatment of “Time-Dependent Mechanical Properties of Solids” beginswith a phenomenological description of the transport of some unspecifiedentity. It is assumed that the transport is caused by mechanical stresses ortemperature fields. Using these assumptions, it is possible to deduceformulae for a theoretically based description of several phenomena withoutreferring to any specific process or entity. These theoretical results thenprovide the tools for performing methodologically better scientific work andfor a better analysis of data in the practical application of materials. Bypublishing this work, the author hopes improve technical safety intransportation and other fields of practical materials application. Anothergoal is to stimulate the scientific investigation of a wider range ofsubstances in order to analyze more extensively the elementary processeswhich produce observed phenomena. This second edition is extended andChapter 12, five new Sections as well as the Appendices A7, A8 and A9 areadditionally inserted.


Edited by: Farhad Aslani
Online since: June 2014
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) refers to a 'highly flow-able,non-segregating concrete that can be spread into place, fill the formwork,and encapsulate the reinforcement without the aid of any mechanicalconsolidation. SCC is regarded as one of the most promising developments inconcrete technology due to significant advantages over Conventional Concrete(CC). In this study cracking caused by external loads in reinforced SCC andFRSCC slabs is examined experimentally and analytically. The mechanismsassociated with the flexural cracking due to the combined effects ofconstant sustained service loads and shrinkage are observed. One of theprimary objectives of this study is to develop analytical models thataccurately predict the hardened mechanical properties of SCC and FRSCC.Subsequently, these models have been successfully applied to simulatetime-dependent cracking of SCC and FRSCC one-way slabs.


Edited by: Sébastien Chevalier and Jérôme Favergeon
Online since: January 2014
Description: Increased clarity in our understanding of water vapor effects on oxidation is resulting from our recognition that multiple mechanisms are possible, and that distinctions must be drawn between situations where, on the one hand, molecular oxygen accompanies water vapor, and on the other, it does not, and instead free hydrogen can be present. It is a pleasure to welcome the contributions of this new book to this important field. Whilst the existence of a substantial French research effort in the area has been well known, the scale and extent of the effort comes as something of a surprise. The reason for this is apparent in the reference lists provided at the end of each chapter: much of the work is simply not available in the readily accessed literature. The book performs an important service in bringing these results to the attention of the wider research community. Overall, the book succeeds well in its aim of presenting an integrated view of water vapor effects on high temperature corrosion. Its organization into chapters concerned with different alloy classes is appealing, and the contents should prove useful to many readers.


Edited by: G.S. Upadhyaya
Online since: May 2013
Description: Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters BCI (WoS).
Metals, because of their inherent properties, have been in service to mankind from the Early Periods. Metal craft started turning into metal science in the 19th Century and got matured in 20th century. The present book, to the best of author’s memory, is the first attempt to present the history of metal science in one volume, covering both extractive and physical metallurgy. The book is aimed as a supplementary text book for students in metallurgy and materials science and also selectively for general readers. After a brief introduction (Chapter 1), the second and third chapters are devoted to extractive metallurgy. The chapters related to physical metallurgy (4th to 6th) are written in a sequence such that the description of structures is given first, before highlighting the properties of metals and alloys. The final chapter ‘Future Trends’ highlights various topics in contemporary metal science.


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