W. Ahmed, N. Ali and Prof. Andreas Öchsner
Online since: January 2008
Description: Biomedical engineering involves the application of the principles and techniques of engineering to the enhancement of medical science as applied to humans or animals. It involves an interdisciplinary approach which combines the materials, mechanics, design, modelling and problem-solving skills employed in engineering with medical and biological sciences so as to improve the health, lifestyle and quality-of-life of individuals. Biomedical engineering is a relatively new field, and involves a whole spectrum of disciplines covering: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modelling, etc. Combining these disciplines, systematically and synergistically yields total benefits which are much greater than the sum of the individual components. Prime examples of the successful application of biomedical engineering include the development and manufacture of biocompatible prostheses, medical devices, diagnostic devices and imaging equipment and pharmaceutical drugs.
The purpose of this book is to present the latest research and development carried out in the areas of biomedical engineering, biomaterials and nanomaterials science and to highlight the applications of such systems. Particular emphasis is given to the convergence of nano-scale effects, as related to the delivery of enhanced biofunctionality.
Youngkyoo Kim and Chang-Sik Ha
Online since: May 2008
Description: Organic electroluminescence (OEL) is the phenomenon of electrically-driven emission of light from organic materials; including both fluorescent and phosphorescent organic solids. The organic light-emitting device (OLED), which exploits OEL emission from organic semiconducting thin films (with thicknesses of less than a few hundred nanometers), sandwiched between electrodes, has attracted keen interest in its application to flat-panel displays, due to its high luminous efficiency, low driving voltage, tunable colors as well as a convenient device-structure design and low fabrication costs when compared with every other known display device.
Online since: April 2008
Description: Electrostatic stresses are a fascinating field where materials science, continuum mechanics and electrical engineering all come together. This is one of the reasons why the study of these so-called Maxwell stresses is so interesting.
Online since: April 2008
Description: Since the first development of lithium-ion batteries in the early 1990’s, there have been tremendous advances in the science and technology of these electrochemical energy sources. At present, lithium batteries dominate the field of advanced power sources and have almost entirely replaced their bulkier and less energetic counterparts such as nickel-cadmium and nickel-metalhydride batteries; especially in portable electronic devices. But lithium batteries are still the object of continuing intense research aimed at making further improvements in performance and safety, at lower cost, so as to make them suitable for higher-power and more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The research and development of new electrode materials, particularly for cathodes, having an improved electrochemical performance has always been a matter of changing focus. Thus, olivine, lithium iron phosphate, has attracted considerable attention in recent years as a safe, environmentally friendly, extremely stable and very promising cathode material.
Pierre SARRAZIN, Alain GALERIE, Jacques FOULETIER
Online since: February 2008
Description: The oxidation of metals is, by definition, a reaction between a gas and a solid which usually produces a solid reaction product. At first glance, this would therefore seem to be a very simple process but, in fact, it is considerably more complex. One would like to think that the reaction product, i.e., the scale that forms on the metal, acts as a physical barrier between the reactants, and that the reaction should thus cease once the barrier is established. We know that this is unfortunately not the case, because transport of matter through the scale allows the reaction to continue. We also know that, because of density-differences between the metal and its oxide, the scale may not be sufficiently complete in coverage or may not adhere to the substrate because of cracking, spalling and detachment (wrinkling). In some extreme cases, the scale may even be a liquid which simply drips from the surface, or it may volatilize at operational temperatures. The reaction between a gas and a metal is truly very complicated.
Yuri I. Sucharev
Online since: February 2008
Description: The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides – hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties.
Online since: June 2007
Description: Thin slab casting and direct rolling (TSDR) technologies are nowadays one of the most promising processing routes to maintain steel as a leading material in technological applications. Initially, this process was exclusively for the production of mild steels. As industrial experience and knowledge improved, a rapid expansion of the range of products took place with higher strength grades becoming an important part of the overall production. Actually, it is widely accepted as a route to produce high value grades and it can be considered as a technology which has reached a high degree of maturity. This book aims to provide an approach to the different metallurgical aspects involved in the application of thermomechanical treatments in the TSDR route.
W.R. Fahrner, M. Muehlbauer and H.C. Neitzert
Online since: August 2006
Description: The world of today must face up to two contradictory energy problems: on the one hand, there is the sharply growing consumer demand in countries such as China and India. On the other hand, natural resources are dwindling. Moreover, many of those countries which still possess substantial gas and oil supplies are politically unstable. As a result, renewable natural energy sources have received great attention. Among these, solar-cell technology is one of the most promising candidates. However, there still remains the problem of the manufacturing costs of such cells. Many attempts have been made to reduce the production costs of “conventional” solar cells (manufactured from monocrystalline silicon using diffusion methods) by instead using cheaper grades of silicon, and simpler pn-junction fabrication. That is the ‘hero’ of this book; the heterojunction solar cell.
Pentti O. Kettunen
Online since: August 2006
Description: One of the oldest construction materials is wood which, technically speaking, belongs to the group of polymer matrix composites; one which is conveniently and expertly produced by Nature. Due to its organic cell-type structure, the density of wood remains modest. Thus, as its strength and stiffness can - in certain cases - attain remarkable values, its levels of specific strength and stiffness (absolute strength or stiffness divided by density) can reach magnitudes which are competitive with those of other construction materials. It is demonstrated, for instance, that the specific strength of wood in the axial direction can exceed those of low-carbon steel and concrete. Its specific stiffness can also be comparable to those of aluminum alloys and low-carbon steels, and is better than that of concrete. In constructional design, especially in the dimensioning of supports, the values of specific strength and stiffness are of utmost importance.
Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, N. Daldosso, M. Ghulinyan, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, M. Saiani, F. Sbrana and L. Pavesi
Online since: May 2006
Description: The use of light to channel signals around electronic chips could solve several current problems in microelectronic evolution including: power dissipation, interconnect bottlenecks, input/output from/to optical communication channels, poor signal bandwidth, etc. It is unfortunate that silicon is not a good photonic material: it has a poor light-emission efficiency and exhibits a negligible electro-optical effect. Silicon photonics is a field having the objective of improving the physical properties of silicon; thus turning it into a photonic material and permitting the full convergence of electronics and photonics.