Sequential Release of BMP-7 and VEGF from the PLGA/AK-Gelatin Composite Scaffolds
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-7) are key regulators of angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of realizing sequential release of the two growth factors using a novel composite scaffold. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-Akermanite (AK) microspheres were used to make the composite scaffold, which was then loaded with BMP-7, followed by embedding in a gelatin hydrogel matrix loaded with VEGF. The release profiles of the growth factors were studied and selected osteogenic related markers of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were analysed. It was shown that the composite scaffolds exhibited a fast initial burst release of VEGF within the first 3 days and a sustained slow release of BMP-7 over the full period of 20 days. The in vitro proliferation and differentiation of the BMSCs cultured in the osteogenic medium were enhanced by 1 to 2 times, resulting from the additionally and sequentially release of growth factors from the PLGA-AK/gelatin composite scaffolds.
G. Liu et al., "Sequential Release of BMP-7 and VEGF from the PLGA/AK-Gelatin Composite Scaffolds", Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Vol. 11, pp. 81-91, 2011