Effects of Donor Doping on Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Bismuth Layer-Structured Bi4Ti3O12 Ceramics
A study was conducted on the effects of donor dopants, Nb2O5 and WO3, on microstructure and electric properties of Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) ceramics. X-ray diffraction patterns of the materials showed a single orthorhombic phase structure. The microstructure results revealed the appearance of plate-like grain. The donor doping decreased the conductivity of BIT by as much as 3 orders of magnitude. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of doped-BIT materials were also investigated. The decrease in the electrical conductivity allowed the doped samples to be poled to develop piezoelectricity. Thermal annealing studies of the samples indicated the donor-doped BIT were suitable candidate materials for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.
Wei Pan, Jianghong Gong, Chang-Chun Ge and Jing-Feng Li
L. Zhang et al., "Effects of Donor Doping on Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Bismuth Layer-Structured Bi4Ti3O12 Ceramics", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 280-283, pp. 259-262, 2005