The cyclic deformation in Cu and Cu-35Zn alloy were studied using ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique to measure the ultrasonic velocity, attenuation coefficient and a nonlinear parameter. These materials were cyclically deformed under total strain amplitude control to investigate their ultrasonic reaction to different dislocation substructures, depending on the stacking fault energy difference. The microstructure evolution was observed using a transmission electron microscope, and the ultrasonic NDE parameter was measured after several cycles of fatigue deformation, in order to clarify the relationship between them. In both materials, the ultrasonic velocity was observed to decrease as the fatigue life fraction increased, which was attributed to the increasing dislocation density caused by the cyclic deformation. In the case of Cu, with its cell structure evolving during cyclic deformation, the rate of increase of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter was higher than that observed in the case of the Cu-35Zn alloy with its planar array structure. This result implies that the dislocation cell structure is more sensitive to the ultrasonic parameter changes than the planar array structure formed during cyclic deformation.