Electrochemically Bioactivating of Titanium Surface with Modulation of Citrate
The electrochemical cathode bioactivating titanium with additive of citrate was reported. After the treatment, there was a uniform dense layer with very tiny granules on the surface of the titanium, this layer was composed of amorphous calcium phosphate-citrate (ACP-CIT) with a thickness of about 150nm. After immersion in saturated calcium phosphate solution, the morphology at different time points of the early stage was quite different. The changes of morphology showed that the citrate in amorphous calcium phosphate modulated the crystal growth.
Takashi Nakamura, Kimihiro Yamashita and Masashi Neo
Q. Y. Zhang et al., "Electrochemically Bioactivating of Titanium Surface with Modulation of Citrate", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 309-311, pp. 387-390, 2006