The analysis on load characteristics and stress state of bearing races shows that the roll path and outside layer of a bearing race are the main part to bear the load, and that residual tensile stress is often found on workpiece surface. For the purpose of improving residual stress state on machined surface of a bearing race, a method of pre-stress hard cutting is put forward. In this paper, the principle of pre-stress cutting is introduced, and method of loading stress on bearing races, together with the calculation for pre-stress, is analyzed. A set of device with expanding mandrel for realizing the process is designed too and an experiment of pre-stress cutting is carried out on a lathe with PCBN tool. The experimental results show that, by using this method, we can get residual compressive stress on machined surface layer of a bearing race and increase the quality and contact fatigue life of bearing.