In order to machine high accuracy Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) crystal part, the indentation experiments are carried out with various loads and various orientation angles. The experimental results show that the critical condition of brittle-ductile transition of KDP has strong anisotropy. Therefore, the influence factors on the surface quality of crystal KDP was discussed, it is shown that influences of the tool's geometry parameter, feed rate and Nominal depth of cut etc on the surface quality of KDP are main. Afterwards the cutting experimental study on crystal KDP material is carried out. The experimental results show that the super-smooth surface quality only can be obtained while KDP is ultra-precision machined in ductile mode.